World Map by AirPano

Top 20 virtual tours

360° Video, Angel Falls, Venezuela

Total Views: 25 265

Today we present you the full version of our 360° video of Angel Falls — the highest waterfall in the world. Up to this moment nobody was able to capture the Angel waterfall in 360° video format. AirPano proudly presents the world's first 360° video of the highest waterfall on the Earth. Also this is our first big project in ultra high 8K resolution. To watch the VR content in 8K you will need a very powerful computer, so most of you will keep on using 4K. Nevertheless, you may still enjoy the beauty of this remote place of our planet.


The Angel Waterfall found itself in the very heart of the Canaima National Park in Venezuela, not far from the border with Brazil and Guyana.

A small old "Douglas" was on its way to bring us from Puerto Ordaz to Canaima. The bigger part of the car was occupied by our suitcases filled with equipment. Through the windows we could see the tepuis, the famous table-top mountains. Over the edge of one of these mountains, Auyan-tepui, the world's highest waterfall drops.

The story of its exploration is rather unusual. On November 14, 1933 an American aviator Jimmie Angel flew solo over the Devil's Canyon in search of gold ore beds. On his return he spoke of an "incredible waterfall falling a mile down". No one believed him, though.

Four years later he returned to Venezuela. This time he was accompanied by his wife Marie (a co-pilot and a navigator) and assistants Angel Delgado, Gustavo Heny and Felix Cardona.

Angel Falls, Venezuela

At first, Heny and Cardona attempted to find a way up to the top of the mountain by land. They spent two weeks doing so, but all in vain. On October 9, 1937 the plane of the expedition took off at the foot of Auyan-tepui. Cardona stayed in a camp. James Angel managed to land atop the mountain into the marshy ground and broke the wheels. Realising that there was no way to mend the plane, the team was forced to descend the tepui on foot. Before they left, the head of the expedition insisted on getting the nose of the plane out of the mud; Angel strongly disliked the idea of leaving the airplane with its propeller buried in the ground. They also made a sign "We're OK" with some clothes on the wing of the plane and set off. It took them 11 days to make their way to an Indian settlement and then finally back to civilisation on boats.

The news of their adventure spread quickly and the waterfall was named after the discoverer, in honour of James Angel (the common Spanish name is Salto Ángel, the "Angel's jump"). The plane remained on top of the tepui for 33 years. In 1970 it was dismantled and transported to the Aviation Museum for restoration. Now the airplane sits outdoors in front of the airport at Ciudad Bolívar. We saw the legendary vehicle with our own eyes!

Angel Falls, Venezuela

Even nowadays the way to the waterfall is not an easy one. It can be either a several hours trip up the river in a boat from the Lagoon of Canaima or a flight on a helicopter or an airplane. We decided to try both and compare them.

Our plans changed on the very first day. The helicopter that was arranged to carry us broke down, so we had to postpone the flight for a couple of days. We spent this time exploring the lagoon and the nearby waterfalls. But the day of a flight soon came, we loaded our equipment in a yellow helicopter that brought us to Auyan-tepui. In half an hour we were at the foot of the mountain.

The mountain tops are often covered with clouds not allowing to see anything. This time was also the same — the waterfall was hidden by the mist. We spent more than an hour waiting for the sun. Finally, the clouds parted and the helicopter started to gain altitude. The height of the waterfall is almost a kilometre and while we were raising to the needed height, Angel Falls again was hidden in the mist. In order not to loose the altitude and our time, the pilot decided to land the helicopter atop the mountain. Thick clouds were surrounding us, but our experienced pilot found a glimpse and we safely landed on the top, to the great surprise of hikers that encamped there. It took them several days to get there, while we spent only an hour.

Angel Falls, Venezuela

In the company of hikers we waited for the clouds to make scarce and took off again. Our pilot, a genuine master of flight control, guided the helicopter to the edge of the tepui and we saw with our own eyes how the river turned into a vertical stream of a kilometre high, so exciting! We flew along the canyon to see several other waterfalls, which are not so high, but not the less impressive. Time flew fast and we had to return to the airport. In the end, our pilot showed us one more interesting landmark called "Manhattan": curious stone towers atop the mountain formed by weathering and erosion.

The following day we had to repeat our way to the waterfall, but this time by river. The best water transport used here is the wooden canoe made of a solid tree trunk. This kind of boats is highly resistant to stones hidden by water and are suitable for overcoming numerous rapids. We loaded our equipment and started floating up the river. The way was a long one, so we would arrive at the camp only in the evening. The boatman skilfully controlled the canoe sailing among stony banks; lianas were hanging over the water and we could see the tepuis. The weather was hot, the sun was shining brightly. As soon as we reached our destination we encamped for our first night in the jungle, hung the hammocks and an anti-mosquito screen. We would stay here, in this jungle forest, for several days.

Angel Falls, Venezuela

The distance between our camp and the waterfall was about four kilometres only, though the way laid through the humid jungles with a certain elevation. So, when we got the place where we would launch our drone we felt quite exhausted, meanwhile our guides walked easily, as if nothing special was happening.

Standing just opposite the waterfall it became clear to us how huge it actually is; we couldn't see the true dimensions of it from above. The water falling from the height of almost a kilometre is turning into the smallest dust when it gets to the ground. The top of the tepui gets covered by clouds every now and then. Sometimes the clouds descend and cover the jungles with the mist.

Our work lasted for several days: the daytime we spent capturing Angel Falls, then in the evening we returned to the camp and in the morning again went to have a "date" with the waterfall. With the nightfall, we could witness the thousands of stars in the sky and as soon as we were turning on the torch we were surrounded by lots of exotic insects attracted by the light. Some of them bit us, so I preferred to stay in the darkness and watch the starry sky.

Angel Falls, Venezuela

Local indigenous people Pemon believe the tepuis to be the home for the spirits called mawari, while the waterfalls are incarnations of these spirits. The mountain Auyan-tepui is known among them as the "Devil's Mountain", although they also believe that the person who saw the Angel Waterfall even once in a lifetime would receive vital power. The mysterious mawari are the creatures of small height wearing golden jewellery, just as ancient Inca people, and they don't like meeting new people. The Pemon usually leave some food for them in the night and they say that by morning it disappears. It can be just a legend, but who knows? The jungles are huge and mysterious.

Several days later the weather got worse and we had to go back. The way down the river turned out to be more challenging; in addition, the rain started. At first, we felt a relief after a long period of hot weather, but soon we got soaked to the skin. With their teeth chattering, the Indians were wrapping in life jackets and polyethylene. It was already dusk when we returned to the lagoon. The following morning a flight to Puerto Ordaz was waiting for us, from where we were to travel to the Orinoco Delta.

But that's another story to be told.

Authors of the video, photos and texts: Sergey ShandinStas SedovNickolay Denisov and Ivan Roslyakov


If you have problems with playing our 360 videos, follow these instructions

If you have any of the following problems: video is not playing, video is playing like a standard video without the possibility of changing the angle of view or there are delays during playback, we suggest a few basic decisions:

  • • Try using a different browser (we recommend Google Chrome, Mozilla FireFox and Opera).
  • • Pause the playback until the video loads up completely and then play the video.
  • • If there are delays during playback, try to play the video in low resolution.
  • • Restart the computer.
  • • In order to view 360° videos on mobile device you need to install YouTube application.

See also


2018-04-13 11:16:55    
  5 from 5

"Increible.. ! muy buena filmacion , y edicion exelente! la musica de quien gusta mucho!
Gracias por experiencia Salto de Angel
Bolivia les Espera !"

Nicolas Gallardo, Bolivia

2017-05-31 12:37:59    
  5 from 5

"The discovery and the descent is pure movie script! I would like to watch that movie!"

Jurica Rasic, Croatia

2017-04-15 07:42:07    
  5 from 5

ed nelson, USA

2017-04-13 10:40:05    
  5 from 5


Damaso Rijo, Portugal

2017-04-12 16:31:27    
  5 from 5

"Very beutiful video and very special phisico-geografycal area"


2017-04-10 17:32:22    
  5 from 5

"Amazing and very beautiful waterfall presentations, thank you"

Karel Hofmann, Czech Republic

2017-04-10 14:31:32    
  5 from 5

"Amazingly beautiful such great work, I am always shocked by the work you produce."

Ron Potts, USA

* First Name:
* Last Name:
*E-mail: Your E-mail will not be published but it will be used to send the anwers to your message
  You can rate our panorama or write a comment. You can do both if you would like!
Rate our panorama:                     (the highest mark is 5)
Panoramas and 360° Virual Tours of the Most Beautiful Places Around the World:     Guilin National Park, China   •   Masai-Mara, Kenya   •   2018 FIFA World Cup Stadiums, Russia   •   Mont Saint-Michel Abbay, France   •   Abbey of Montserrat, Spain   •   Abu Dhabi, UAE, UAE   •   Acropolis, Athens, Greece   •   Agra Fort, India   •   Ay-Petri, Russia   •   Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia   •   Alhambra, Granada, Spain   •   Malpelo Island , Colombia   •   Amsterdam, Holland   •   Amsterdam, Holland   •   Petra, Jordan   •   Angel Falls, Venezuela   •   Angel Falls, Venezuela   •   Angel falls, Venezuela   •   Angel Falls, Venezuela   •   Angkor Wat, Cambodia   •   Antarctica, Antarctica   •   Antarctica, Antarctica   •   Antarctica, Antarctica   •   Antarctica, Antarctica   •   Antarctica, Antarctica   •   South Georgia Island, British overseas territory   •   Antigua Guatemala, Guatemala   •   Buenos Aires, Argentina   •   Athens, Greece   •   Bagan, Myanmar   •   Baikal Lake, Russia   •   Baikal Lake, Russia   •   Bagan, Myanmar   •   Bangkok, Thailand   •   Barcelona, Spain   •   Kambalnaya river, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Kambalnaya river, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Beijing, China, China   •   Berlin, Germany, Germany   •   Bern, Switzerland   •   Bern, Switzerland   •   Bhutan, Bhutan   •   Bhutan, Bhutan   •   Bhutan, Bhutan   •   Bhutan, Bhutan   •   Moscow Kremlin, Russia   •   Moscow, Kolomenskoye, Russia   •   Borobudur, Indonesia   •   Bromo volcano, Java, Indonesia   •   Bromo volcano, Java, Indonesia   •   Bryce Canyon, USA   •   Bryce Canyon, USA   •   Bryce Canyon, USA   •   Budapest, Hungary   •   Buenos Aires, Argentina   •   Buenos Aires, Argentina   •   Canaima Lagoon, Hacha Waterfall, Venezuela   •   Canaima Lagoon, Ucaima Waterfall, Venezuela   •   Canaima Lagoon, Hacha Waterfall, Venezuela   •   Cancun, Mexico   •   Cannes, French Riviera, France   •   Cape Good Hope, South Africa   •   Cappadocia, Turkey   •   Venice, Italy   •   Venice, Italy   •   Venice, Italy   •   Casablanca, Morocco, Morocco   •   Cesky Krumlov, Czech Republic   •   Chateaux of the Loire Valley, France   •   Chateaux of the Loire Valley, France   •   Chateaux of the Loire Valley, France   •   Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, China   •   Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, China   •   Chicago, Illinois, USA   •   Chicago, Illinois, USA   •   Chillon Castle, Switzerland   •   China, China   •   Corcovado, Brazil   •   Church of the Intercession on the Nerl, Russia   •   Church of the Savior on Blood, Saint Petersburg, Russia   •   Cinque Terre, Italy, Italy   •   Cinque Terre, Italy   •   Corniglia, Cinque Terre, Italy   •   Cortona, Italy   •   Cote d'Azur, Antibes, Port Grimaud, France   •   Côte d'Azur. Fréjus and Saint-Raphaël, France   •   Cote d'Azur, Menton, France   •   Cote d'Azur, Saint-Tropez, Sainte-Maxime, France   •   Cote d'Azur, Villefranche-sur-Mer, Ile d'Or and Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France   •   Crimea, Russia   •   Curonian Spit, Lithuania   •   Curonian Spit, Russia   •   Cusco, Peru, Peru   •   Manhattan, New York, USA   •   Death Valley, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Delhi, India   •   Delta of the Orinoco River, Venezuela   •   Guadalupe Island, Mexico   •   Gardens of the Queen, Cuba   •   Gardens of the Queen, Cuba   •   Gardens of the Queen, Cuba   •   Gardens of the Queen, Cuba   •   Dolomites, Italy   •   The Caribbean, Dominican Republic   •   Surroundings of Angel Falls, Dragon Falls, Cortina Falls, Venezuela   •   Dubai, United Arab Emirates   •   Dubai, United Arab Emirates   •   Dubai, UAE   •   Dunhuang Yardang National Geopark, China   •   Pyramids, Egypt   •   Pyramids, Egypt   •   Paris, France   •   Ethiopia, Ethiopia   •   Everest, Nepal   •   Everest, Nepal   •   Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, India   •   Fes, Morocco   •   Fiordland, New Zealand   •   Plesetsk Cosmodrome, Russia   •   Fjallabak Nature Reserve, Iceland   •   Lake Bogoria, Kenya   •   Pereslavl-Zalesskiy, Russia   •   Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia   •   Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic   •   Florence, Italy   •   French Polynesia, French Polynesia   •   Fussen Town, Neuschwanstein and Hohenschwangau Castles, Germany   •   Gardens of the Queen, Cuba   •   Gardens of the Queen, Cuba   •   Gigapanorama of Moscow from the Ostankino Tower, Russia   •   Gobi Desert, Mongolia   •   Moscow Region, Russia   •   Golden Ring of Russia, Russia   •   Suzdal, Russia   •   Ivanovo, Russia   •   Kostroma, Russia   •   Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia   •   Rostov, Russia   •   Sergiyev Posad, Russia   •   Vladimir, Russia   •   Yaroslavl, Russia   •   Grand Canyon, USA   •   360 video, Grand Canyon, USA   •   Manhattan, New York, USA   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Egyptian Pyramids, Egypt   •   The Great Wall of China, China   •   Great Wall of China. Jiankou and Jiaoshan, China   •   Great Wall of China. Jiankou and Jiaoshan, China   •   Cape-Town, South Africa   •   360 video, Grozny, Russia   •   Halong Bay, Vietnam   •   Oahu, Hawaii, USA   •   Manhattan, New York, USA   •   Langisjor and Veidivotn, Iceland   •   Holland, Holland   •   Holland, Holland   •   Zaanse Schans, Holland   •   Hollywood, California, USA   •   Jerusalem, Israel   •   Hong Kong, China   •   Horseshoe Bend, Arizona, USA   •   Huanglong, Sichuan, China   •   Huangshan mountains, China   •   Ilulissat, Greenland   •   Ilulissat Icefjord, Greenland   •   Ilulissat Icefjord, Greenland   •   Ilulissat Icefjord, Greenland   •   Ilulissat Icefjord, Greenland   •   Ilulissat Icefjord, Greenland   •   Jokulsarlon Ice Lagoon, Iceland   •   Iceland, the best, Iceland   •   Iguasu Falls, Argentina   •   India, India   •   Iceland, Iceland   •   Irkutsk, Russia   •   Istanbul, Turkey   •   Istra, Russia   •   Jaipur, India   •   Jakarta, Indonesia   •   Jellyfish Bay, Raja Ampat, Indonesia   •   Jellyfish Bay, Raja Ampat, Indonesia   •   Jellyfish Bay, Raja Ampat, Indonesia   •   Kaliningrad, Russia   •   Kalyan Minaret, Bukhara, Uzbekistan   •   Kamchatka, Russia   •   Kamchatka, Russia   •   Kamchatka, Russia   •   Kambalnoe Lake, Kamchatka, Russia, Russia   •   Kargopol, Russia, Russia   •   Kathmandu, Nepal   •   Kazan, Russia   •   Kiev, Ukraine   •   Kolmanskop Ghost Town, Namibia   •   Kuala-Lumpur, Malaysia   •   Baikal Lake, Russia   •   Lake Baikal, Russia   •   Lake Powell, USA   •   Ilulissat Icefjord, Greenland   •   Las Vegas, USA   •   Las Vegas, USA   •   Pisa, Tuscany, Italy   •   Lencois Maranhenses National Park, Brazil   •   Lima, Peru   •   Lisbon, Portugal   •   Lisbon, Portugal   •   Lofoten archipelago, Norway   •   Los Angeles, California, USA   •   Lucerne, Switzerland   •   Lucerne, Switzerland   •   Luxor, Egypt   •   Machu Picchu, Peru   •   Madrid, Spain   •   Fesdu Island, Maldives   •   Manarola, Cinque Terre, Italy   •   Manhattan, New York, USA   •   Maldives, Maldives   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Chichen Itza, Mexico   •   Tikal, Guatemala   •   Meteora, Greece, Greece   •   Mexico, Mexico   •   Miami, USA   •   Mir Castle, Belarus   •   Easter Island, Chile   •   Moeraki Boulders, New Zealand   •   Monaco, Monaco   •   Mono Lake, California, USA   •   Mont Blanc, Italy   •   Mont Blanc, Italy   •   Mont Blanc, France   •   Mont Blanc, France   •   Mont Blanc, France   •   Kotor Bay, Montenegro   •   Monterosso, Cinque Terre, Italy   •   MKAD, Moscow, Russia   •   Moscow, Kremlin, Russia   •   Moscow City, Russia   •   Moscow City, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Moscow Kremlin, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Moscow Kremlin, Russia, Russia   •   Moscow, MSU, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Krokus Expo Center, Moscow, Russia   •   Moscow, Kolomenskoye, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   City of Capitals, Russia   •   Istanbul, Turkey   •   Mount Elbrus, Russia   •   Mount Elbrus, Russia   •   Mount Elbrus, Russia   •   Naarden, Holland   •   Nairobi, Kenya   •   Namib Desert, Namibia   •   Jiuzhaigou, China   •   Nazca Lines, Peru   •   New Jerusalem Monastery, Russia   •   New Jerusalem Monastery, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Millennium UN Plaza Hotel, New York, USA   •   Millennium UN Plaza Hotel, New York, USA   •   Manhattan, New York, USA   •   Niagara Falls, USA   •   Nice, France   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Shanghai, China   •   North Goa, India   •   North Goa, India   •   North Kurile Islands, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Lofoten archipelago, Norway   •   Northern lights in Norway, Norway   •   Norwegian Fjords, Norway   •   Novodevichy Convent. Moscow, Russia   •   Old Watch Towers, Ingushetia, Russia   •   Grimsvotn, Iceland   •   Orda Cave, Russia   •   Orvieto, Italy   •   Ramenki, Moscow, Russia   •   Pamukkale, Turkey   •   Paraty, Brazil   •   Paris, France   •   Pena National Palace, Sintra, Portugal   •   Peter and Paul fortress, Saint Petersburg, Russia   •   Petra, Jordan   •   Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia   •   Pit Cenote, Mexico   •   Plitvice-Lakes, Croatia   •   Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia   •   Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia   •   Plosky Tolbachik Volcano , Russia   •   Porto Venere, Italy   •   Porto, Portugal   •   Porto, Portugal   •   Prague, Czech Republic   •   Prambanan Temple Compounds, Indonesia   •   Putorana Plateau, Russia   •   Uzon caldera, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Rabat, Morocco   •   Zambezi River, Zambia   •   Raja Ampat archipelago, Indonesia, Indonesia   •   Kronstadt, Russia   •   Reine, Lofoten archipelago, Norway   •   Reykjavik, Iceland   •   Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Brazil   •   Rio-de-Janeiro, Brazil   •   Riomaggiore, Cinque Terre, Italy   •   Roman Colosseum, Italy   •   Romw, Italy   •   Kubinka, Russia   •   Saint Petersburg at night, Russia   •   Saint Petersburg, Russia   •   Saint Petersburg, Russia   •   Sakhalin Island, Russia   •   San Francisco, California, USA   •   Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, USA   •   San Juan and Colorado rivers, USA   •   Goosenecks, Utah, USA   •   Santiago, Chile   •   Oia, Greece   •   Sao Paulo, Brazil, Brazil   •   Seattle, USA   •   Segovia, Spain   •   Senja Island, Norway   •   Sevastopol, Crimea, Russia   •   Seville, Spain   •   Seychelles, Seychelles   •   Shanghai, China   •   Shibuya Crossing, Tokyo, Japan   •   Truk Lagoon, Micronesia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Shoubak Castle, Jordan   •   Shwedagon Pagoda, Myanmar   •   Siena, Italy   •   Tidore island, Indonesia   •   South Maldives, Maldives   •   Southern Maldives, Maldives   •   Southern Maldives, Maldives   •   Sankt Moritz, Switzerland   •   360 video, mount Elbrus, Russia   •   Elbrus, Russia   •   Statue of Liberty, New York, USA   •   Manhattan, New York, USA   •   Svalbard (Spitsbergen), Norway   •   Svolaer, Lofoten archipelago, Norway, Norway   •   Swaminarayan Akshardham, India   •   Lausanne, Swiss Riviera, Switzerland   •   Sydney, Australia   •   Sydney, Australia   •   Ta Prohm, Angkor, Cambodia   •   Taj Mahal, India   •   Taj Mahal, India   •   Teotihuacan, Mexico   •   The Drakensberg, South Africa   •   UAE, UAE   •   White Sea, Russia   •   Palpa, Peru   •   Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia   •   Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia   •   Great Barrier Reef, Australia   •   Australia, Australia   •   Great Barrier Reef, Australia   •   Mauritius, Mauritius   •   Kurile Lake, Kamchatka, Russia   •   The Land of Bears, Kurile Lake, Kamchatka, Russia, Russia   •   Matterhorn, Switzerland   •   Palmyra, Syria   •   Twelve Apostles Marine National Park, Australia   •   Blue Lagoon, Iceland   •   The Qiandaohu Lake, China   •   Times Square, New York, USA   •   Toledo, Spain   •   Trinity Lavra of Sait Sergius, Russia   •   Raja Ampat archipelago, Indonesia   •   North Pole, North Pole   •   Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia   •   Cramp fish, Maldives   •   Maldives, Maldives   •   Uzon caldera, Kamchatka, Russia, Russia   •   Uzon caldera, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Uzon caldera, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Uzon caldera, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Uzon, Western Thermal Field, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Valencia, Spain   •   Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Varanasi, India, India   •   Italy, Vatican   •   Venice, Italy   •   Vernazza, Cinque Terre, Italy   •   Victoria Falls, Zambia   •   Victoria Falls, Zambia   •   Victoria Falls, Zambia   •   Victoria Falls, Zambia   •   Victoria Falls, Zambia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Moscow, Russia   •   Vienna, Austria   •   Cape Town, RSA   •   Dubai, UAE   •   Toronto, Canada   •   Neuschwanstein Castle, Germany   •   Volcano Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kamchatka, Russia   •   Kamchatka, Volcano Plosky Tolbachik, Russia   •   Wadi Rum Desert, Jordan   •   Wadi Rum Desert, Jordan   •   Wadi Rum Desert, Jordan   •   Waterfalls, Iceland   •   Wayag Island, Raja Ampat, Indonesia   •   Moscow Kremlin, Russia   •   Sochi, Russia   •   Yamal Peninsula, Russia   •   Yellowstone National Park, USA   •   Yuanyang Hani Rice Terraces, China   •   Matterhorn-Cervino, Switzerland   •   Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, China   •   Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, China   •   Zhivopisniy Bridge, Moscow, Russia   •   Zurich, Switzerland   •